Security threats and challenges of modern world.
Law and political dimension.

25-26 November 2021

Fundacja Prowadzenia Badań Naukowych in cooperation with Rzeszów University of Technology



Security threats and challenges of modern world. Law and political dimension.

Prof. dr hab. Karsten Weber

Cybersecurity and political considerations: When cybersecurity for all is not on the table.
Cybersecurity most obviously must be understood as a multi-dimensional task. Without claiming to be exhaustive, one can at least identify moral values, technical requirements and other factors that influence the design of ICT and thus have a tremendous impact on the conditions under which cybersecurity can be provided. The provision of cybersecurity depends on numerous values, aims and require-ments that are interrelated but also in competition or even conflict with each other. If one accepts this finding, the question that remains to be answered is how it is then possible to strike a balance and combine these values, aims and requirements in such a way that all stakeholders can agree to the compromise that eventually is found – if there is any such thing. In other words, cybersecurity in many cases, perhaps even most cases, will never be achievable to the same extent for all stakeholders at the same time. The interests of the stakeholders are too different for that, but so is their power to enforce these interests. This is rather bad news particularly for citizens, as they are usually in the weakest position. On many occasions, compromises will therefore probably be at their expense.
Prof. dr hab. Mustafa Civelek

Global economy has long been suffering from widespread technology-related unemployment and inequality due to the rising machine intelligence, digitalization and automation technologies. Furthermore the accelerating effect of COVID Pandemic has spurred the gig economy and exacerbate the number of precariates globally. Production methods are changing today and need for human in all business lines are dramatically decreasing. The fundamental question is how to build the social safety for post-digital-ecosystem. Governments should discard outdated social security measures and put permanent basic living stipend on their agenda. However, in the future, as their jobs are replaced by machines, human skills will inevitably suffer from atrophy and most of the human turns to aimless creatures. This paper aims to shed light the social threats in post-digital ecosystem.
Porf. Murat Çemberci

Security Threats Caused by Delays in Supply Chain and Logistics Processes Due to the Covid-19 Pandemic
The Covid-19 pandemic is deeply affected human life. The measures taken in the supply chains were disrupted by the spread of the disease, there were delays and disruptions in the supply of goods. Conventional retail sales operations were not only significantly interrupted, but many companies benefited from transportation/logistics service providers to ensure that their products reach the right place at the right time, even if they are not included in their operations. COVID-19 brought along various travel bans and transportation disruptions, causing significant disruptions in production, logistics and international supply chain all over the world. Interruptions in travel routes, quarantine practices and workforce cuts made it difficult for carriers to comply with the transit times set for transportation and made it difficult to execute transportation contracts. It is seen that the epidemic is described as a force major in many legal systems.
Aleksander Głogowski prof. UJ

Działania w celu ograniczenia skutków pandemii COVID-19 na przykładzie Pakistanu. Działania wewnętrzne, współpraca międzynarodowa.
Pakistan is one of the most populous countries in the world. Its health service is relatively low. The degree of public awareness of the usefulness / necessity of vaccinations is very low, often based on superstitions and pseudo-religious assumptions. Islamabad maintains a very close relationship with China, which for obvious reasons made the Coronavirus pandemic spread quite quickly in Pakistan. This country, cooperating with both the PRC and the UN / WHO, took measures to reduce the scale of the threat equally quickly, but with limited resources and poorly developed medical infrastructure, the effects of these measures were far below the needs. The Pakistan case is also important due to China’s involvement, in particular Pakistan’s participation in research into vaccines and drugs against Covid and diseases caused by it
Dr nauk med. Monika Sadowska

Zawód medyczny w dobie COVID-19 – szansa na rozwój czy obnażenie rzeczywistego oblicza
The fight against an unknown enemy, which spread rapidly to cover the whole world, showed the true face of humanity. Practicing some professions has become particularly desirable during this period, such as medical professions, which seem to be, by nature, called to save human lives and provide help to those in need. For some people, however, it was an attempt to check whether the profession of a doctor, nurse or paramedic they chose was actually the profession they wanted to pursue. For some, the fear of coronavirus infection was insurmountable, which often led to behaviors contrary to the principles of practicing a medical profession, often to the detriment of the patient. For others, the time of fighting the pandemic became an opportunity to obtain professional qualifications or return to the medical profession faster, although there were probably also those for which financial issues were the motive. At the same time, the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic clearly showed how important every medical profession is, without exception, but above all, how important it is not to lose the essence and principles of its performance.
Tomasz Knepka

Bezpieczeństwo rynku finansowego Unii Europejskiej w dobie pandemii COVID19
The topic of the speech is the security of the European Union financial market in the time of the COVID19 pandemic. The author’s intention is to present involvement of EU institutions (both financial and non-financial) in maintaining the stability of this market.
Marcin Chełminiak

Rola obwodu kaliningradzkiego w polskiej polityce zagranicznej po 1989 roku – wyzwania w zakresie bezpieczeństwa
After 1989, the border between Poland and the Russian Federation fully coincides with the border with only one of its entities, i.e. the Kaliningrad Oblast. In the 1990s, there was a concentration of troops in this region, and at the same time the development of cooperation on the Polish-Russian border. This situation caused new challenges for Polish foreign and security policy, also in the context of Poland’s later membership in the EU and NATO.
Dr hab. Wojciech Kotowicz

Obwód kaliningradzki na współczesnej mapie Europy
Kaliningrad Oblast plays an important role on the political map of Europe and Russia for at least two reasons. First, it is the only part of the Russian Federation (along with a small area of ​​the northern part of Russia bordering Norway) that has a land border with NATO. After NATO enlargement to include Lithuania, the oblast became a Russian enclave within the Pact. Secondly, the issue of the Kaliningrad Oblast is of interest to the European Union, which, by accepting Poland and Lithuania as EU members, caused the oblast to be cut off from the Russian core by territories belonging to one organism at that time. This implies a number of problems in the field of international security, the most recent of which has been the military threat. It should be noted that this region plays an important role in the security system of the Russian Federation and was a bridgehead for Russian troops stationed in the Baltic Sea basin, it is also a tool for influencing Poland and the Baltic states, as well as a potential source of strengthening the Russian presence in Europe.
Płk. Dr Robert Reczkowski

Ewolucja zagrożeń bezpieczeństwa państwa. Szara strefa.
Threats are still the basic and primary category of national security. Hence, defining their contemporary nature is a fundamental step in creating Poland’s national security, and thus may constitute a significant support in defining the tasks of, inter alia, for modern armed forces. As indicated by the analyzes of the security environment, including those carried out as part of the NUP 2X35 campaign, the so-called the Gray Zone, which generates extremely dangerous threats (the so-called hybrid threats) not only for our country, but also for international communities associated in the EU or NATO.
mgr inż. Sławomir Cieśla

Wyzwania w budowie odpornego państwa
In the last few years, it has been noticed that the term „resilience” has been gaining importance in the environment dealing with ensuring the security and development of individual countries. Ensuring resilience is identified primarily as creating such organizational capacity of the state that will allow it to deal with emerging crises and eliminate Taking into account the diversity of definitions, an attempt was made to develop a proposal that would clearly define what resistance is. Moreover, an attempt was made to identify the characteristics that a resilient state should have. By identifying these characteristics, it may be tempting to identify potential threats to resistance. attention is drawn to the interpenetration of threats in individual areas, therefore the issue of the necessity to coordinate efforts related to building resilience by all entities involved in ensuring national security is raised.