Zagrożenia i wyzwania bezpieczeństwa współczesnego świata.
Wymiar polityczno-prawny.

25-26 listopada 2021

Fundacja Prowadzenia Badań Naukowych we współpracy z Politechniką Rzeszowską




Assi.Prof. Sabri Oz

Cyber Security Expenditures and its effect on Technology Management in Economic Integration: A Panel Analysis
The world has been experiencing an intense technological and digital transformation since the beginning of the twenty-first century. With the Covid-19 process, the adaptation of people, institutions and states to the same transformation has also accelerated. Although technology is transforming, it brings Cyber Security issues at the same rate. Cyber Security problems also cause important problems in the management of emerging technologies. Therefore, all legal entities and governments are making new methods, new technologies and new investments to take measures against cyber attacks. In terms of countries, investments to be made in this field differ in developed and developing countries. This study reveals the relationship between the comparisons made between countries and the importance given to cyber security in technology management. The study was carried out as a literature review. Keyword: Cyber Security, Technology Management, Economic Integration
Ph.D. Cihad Terzioglu

Energy Security and Possible Effects of Digitalization
While energy security can be defined as meeting the energy needs of a country in a sustainable and reliable way, this definition has gained an international dimension in the globalizing world. Energy security in international terms; defined as the transfer of energy from countries that have energy resources or energy producers to countries that are consumers by following reliable paths. The energy sector is also experiencing a major transformation due to the preference of renewable energy sources instead of conventional energy sources, increasing digital applications with the developing technology and the gains of electrification.Digitalization practices have cost-reducing and efficiency-increasing effects in the energy sector. In addition to its many positive effects, it has many risks in terms of cyber security, as all data can be stored digitally. Countries will have to evaluate cyvber security and take new measures in this area.
Dr Marzena Świstak

„Uniwersytet 2.0” w kontekście bezpieczeństwa prawnoorganizacyjnego. Wybrane zagadnienia prawnoorganizacyjne
The presented paper will present issues related to the internal organization and functioning of public academic universities in the context of their internal structure and the principles of government supervision and control. The comparison of the above-mentioned issues will help to establish the level of institutional autonomy. In particular, it is important from the point of view of: constitutional guarantees granted to universities and their reception at the level of national regulations. This also translates into the distribution of competences in the field of university security in the national space. This is because this sphere belongs to the rector – as a monocratic body that manages the university in the executive dimension. In the structural and organizational context, it is appropriate to evaluate the adopted solutions when passing the act comprehensively changing the system of public universities, i.e. the Constitution for Science.
Ph.D Stdnt Zeynep Didem Arik Aybar

Digital on-boarding in the Turkish banking sector was first raised as of March 2020, and the regulation related digital identification was published in the Official Gazette on April 1, 2021 and entered into force on May 1, 2021. In light of these developments, which can be considered as a precursor to a radical transformation in the Turkish financial system, the contract relationship between banks and certain potential clients was established for the first time, eliminating the need to face each other and making it possible to start the process digitally and end it digitally. As well as the advantages of digitalization of the process, there are still significant risks in the process. This paper describes in detail the digital on-boarding process in Turkey and the current situation of Turkish Banks in digitalization for this process. While examining the risks of digital on-boarding for banks, a general assessment will be also discussed in terms of potential security risks, ML/TF risks.
Adem Kayar Ph.D.(c)

Cyber Security in Digital Transformation of a Casting Factory
In today’s world, where industrial automation systems and information technologies are developing very rapidly, the digitalization of manufacturing enterprises and the management of the product life cycle are among the most talked about topics in recent days. Digital transformation in manufacturing businesses needs different business processes and algorithms for each sector. Industry 4.0 and its components, called digital transformation in the industry, contain different technologies for each application. Autonomous robots, ioT applications, big data, augmented reality and cybersecurity, etc. It is seen that almost all of the technologies are used in digital transformation applications. In this study, the importance and application methods of cybersecurity systems will be discussed while analyzing the digital transformation processes of a factory that produces iron castings.
Talha Karadayı M.Sc

The Future Prospects of Artificial Intelligence: An Opportunity or Threat to Nations
With the speed and spread of computing technology, Artificial Intelligence (AI) phenomenon has shown undeniable growth and now has a position that cannot be ignored. In fact, AI has translated from a fancy term into a strategic concept in the last two decades. When it comes to the Global Economy, it is possible to see AI everywhere, from production to the service sector. The usage of AI in various contexts and the fact that it brings about significant efficiencies in production. In fact, some types of AI are often included in the daily lives of most people and are gradually becoming a necessity without realizing it. It has proved its being a strategic advantage for nations. AI even has the potential have disruptive effect on socio-economic structures at large. Although some scholars and experts predict that AI will have positive impact on socio-economic structures, other believe that global society is at the end of the road highlighting the danger of mass unemployment, social and economic inequality, and even the end of humanity. This research aims to draw a future perspective by discussing the current and possibly destructive effects of AI by conducting a research with experts in the field of AI. Semi-structured interviews were held with industry experts, academics, entrepreneurs, and futurists with extensive AI knowledge.
Zuzanna Gądzik

Urbex – perspektywa prawnokarna
The speech concerns the criminal law assessment of urbex (urban exploration). As an unconventional form of tourism, which consists in discovering abandoned and inaccessible places, it is often associated with the violation of the provisions on the protection of property or possession. For this reason, it was necessary to analyze whether each exploration expedition carries the features of a crime of violating the home miracle – by breaking into someone else’s house, apartment, flat, room or fenced area. In addition, the possibility of committing other prohibited acts was taken into account: causing a dangerous event (in the form of a building collapse), theft, theft with break-in, destruction of property and destruction of a monument, insulting a grave and corpse and insulting an object of religious worship or a place intended for the public performance of religious rites. This issue will be presented in the perspective of, first of all, the safety of people and property.
Halit Ahmet Kahraman PhDcandida

The concept of human security has come to the fore in international security studies regarding political, social, and economic dimensions. The literature on human security takes issue with the sociological and political thought of the coexistence of diverse security threats in the political area. In this respect, Jürgen Habermas’s thoughts join this discussion with the idea of uniting different security threats on common humanity. In summary, according to Habermas, it is possible to reach a political community based on the idea of common humanity. In this study, the limitations of the Human Security conceptualization based on the idea of common humanity created by Habermas’s communicative action theory have been evaluated. In this regard, humanity, which Habermas calls common humanity, has a western-centered, liberal and inclusive aspect and exclusionary. In addition, the communicative action theory has been criticized for reducing power and power relations to the dimensions of discourse and language. In this context, Human Security can be futile in resolving conflicts and disputes in the international system where international law is dysfunctional.
Dr inż. Tomasz Heryszek

Megatrendy w zarządzaniu w aspekcie rynków surowcowych.
The presentation aims to describe the main trends defining the current raw materials market, in a particular aspect the market of strategic raw materials. They include, among others energy resources, incl. hydrocarbons, the global consumption of which is not only not decreasing, but is growing in most regions of the world. The problem is, however, the possibility of supplying hydrocarbons and the limited resources. The exploration of the world’s oil, gas and coal resources is the domain of post-WWII economic development. For over a dozen years there has been a megatrend related to the policy of climate protection, limiting the consumption of hydrocarbons, and thus creating new technological solutions, political conditions and social behavior, which are to be dominant in the next decades. The article and the presentation are an attempt to characterize the processes related to the influence of current trends, which are currently most noticeable in the European Union. The article also outlines a preliminary analysis of the estimation of trends prevailing in the countries of the Northern Hemisphere (Europe) and the feedback loop with the economic policy in other regions, in particular, to what extent the megatrends generated in Europe may become applicable also in other regions and how this will affect on globalization processes and shifting entire economic branches.
Dr Tomasz Wójtowicz

Między tradycjonalizmem, a modernizacją. Kultura strategiczna Arabii Saudyjskiej
This presentation refers to the strategic culture of Saudi Arabia. Its purpose is to present the characteristics of Saudi Arabia’s strategic culture and explain how they influence foreign and security policy decisions. In addition, the presentation will present the genesis of research on strategic culture, difficulties in its definition and classification. According to the author, the following factors have the greatest impact on Saudi Arabia’s foreign and security policy within its strategic culture: Wahhabism, Salafism, Islamic-Arab identity, a sense of uniqueness, tribalism, geographical dispersion and the economy.
Dr Dorota Kamuda

Wyłudzenie odszkodowania w kontekście bezpieczeństwa obrotu gospodarczego
The paper presents issues that show a wide spectrum of behaviors aimed at extorting various types of compensation under the insurance contract, in particular obtaining unlawful claims under third party liability insurance. The indicated topics are shown primarily in the context of threats generated by this type of behavior for the security of economic transactions in the Republic of Poland. The paper discusses in particular the crime under Art. 298 of the Penal Code.
Dr hab. In Maciej Marczyk

Zagrożenia i wyzwania dla obszaru militarnego cyberbezpieczeństwa państwa – wybrane problemy
The increasing dependence of state defense enterprises, state offices and the armed forces on information technologies causes increasing exposure to threats and attacks on ICT systems and networks related to the state security area. The loss of sensitive information by the armed forces or objects and entities included in the military area of ​​the state, or the access of hostile countries to the command support systems and combat means management in the Polish armed forces may have very serious consequences for the security of the state and its citizens, therefore the defense of the cyber area is a challenge a future also for the Ministry of National Defense. The dynamic increase in the importance of the cyber sphere and its security, as well as newer and newer threats in cyberspace for the state’s military area, justify research in this area. This also translates into the political and legal as well as organizational and functional dimensions in the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland. As part of the analyzes, the author wants to answer the main research problem related to the political decisions made and the solutions adopted in the organizational and functional system of the armed forces and their impact on the cybersecurity level of the state’s military area? The main problem formulated in this way determines the area of ​​research related to the diagnosis of activities undertaken by the Ministry of National Defense in the field of defense of the state’s cyberspace. The main objective of the research presented in the article is to analyze the actions taken by the Ministry of National Defense to improve the efficiency of the cybersecurity system in the context of the developing challenges and threats in this area.
Agnieszka Żywicka

Fałszowanie i usuwanie oznaczeń produktów (znaku CE) jako zagrożenie dla wiarygodności obrotu gospodarczego i bezpieczeństwa konsumentów
The subject of the speech is the forgery of various product markings, with particular emphasis on forgery of the CE mark, as a punishable act whose subject of protection is the reliability and credibility of economic transactions from the point of view of protecting the interests of non-professional participants of this trade – consumers. The study will carry out a dogmatic and legal analysis of criminal law regulations ensuring the protection of the consumer-buyer of goods and devices against unreliable information about the quality of the purchased product as an implementation of the postulate of guaranteeing the safety of products placed on the market from the perspective of consumer health protection.
Małgorzata Kuźbida dr

Bezpieczeństwo międzynarodowe Polski w obliczu migracji zarobkowej w XXI wieku – stan prawny i społeczny
The speech concerns legal issues related to the legalization of the stay of foreigners coming to Poland and their professional activity, the impact on the Polish labor market, the state of internal security in the context of the international situation
Małgorzata Trybus

Zagrożenie bezpieczeństwa ekologicznego w postaci nieodpowiedniego postępowania z odpadami – aspekty prawnokarne
The threat to ecological safety is associated with the occurrence of various types of negative phenomena. These include cases of inappropriate handling of waste, especially hazardous waste. Such behavior undoubtedly entails far-reaching, and sometimes irreversible negative consequences not only for human life and health, but also for the natural environment. Illegal handling of waste may lead to destruction both in the plant and animal world. The Polish legislator penalized the indicated behaviors in Art. 183 of the Penal Code As part of the paper, the characteristics of the prohibited acts specified in this provision will be presented, with attention to the criminal law consequences of their committing.
Agnieszka Pieniążek dr

Współpraca transgraniczna a bezpieczeństwo na granicy zewnętrznej Unii Europejskiej. Wymiar instytucjonalno-prawny
The aim of the presentation is to analyze the directions of support provided under the Cross-Border Cooperation Programs at the external borders of the European Union in the last financial perspective, i.e. in the years 2014-2020, implemented under two Programs of the European Neighborhood Instrument, i.e. the Cross-border Cooperation Program Poland-Belarus-Ukraine and Cross-border Cooperation Program Poland-Russia
Wojciech Lis

Bezpieczeństwo państwa w kontekście masowej migracji
The phenomenon of migration raises a number of problems. Most of them have already been recognized, defined and resolved. The border crisis, caused by a group of migrants wandering on the Belarusian-Polish border, revealed other, very important problems that test the sovereignty of the state and the right to self-determination. In view of the above, it is difficult not to get the impression that illegal border crossing has become a business venture, a source of income also for the countries through which the migration route passes. Such activities are a modern form of trafficking in human beings and an element of a hybrid war that allows to test the strength of the state and its ability to react quickly. The decisive actions of the state are opposed to the principles of humanitarianism, solidarity, justice, equality, etc., in order to break the resistance of the state authorities and force them to open their borders, even against their own interests. This, on the other hand, leads to the decomposition of the state and enables the penetration of functionaries of foreign countries into its structures, interested in weakening Poland’s position on the international arena and gaining influence on its policy. The obligation to guard the state border, which is the external border of the European Union and the Schengen Area, and at the same time to pursue an open door policy, is a paradox that is difficult to reconcile with the constitutional obligation of the state to protect public safety and order.
Viktor Savinok

Germany’s foreign and security policy toward Russia: perspectives of Europeanization
Since mid-2000s, close ties between Germany (FRG) and Russia (RF), predominantly those of economic nature contradicting to some interests of the FRG’s Central European neighbours, evoked a discussion whether the Federal Republic might strive toward more coordination with its EU partners in its Russia policy and contribute to building up a common Union’s approach facing Moscow. Nonetheless, since then in issues like energy policy, Berlin preferred to act unilaterally. This resulted into a cleavage between Central European transit countries and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the Federal Republic, on the other, regarding both Nord Stream pipeline projects. However, sanctioning Russia for annexation of Crimea and subsequent military intervention in the Eastern Ukraine put a sign that the FRG was ready to elaborate common EU stances on Russia. Against this background, it is necessary to look into following research questions: 1. To what extent is the ‘Europeanization’ of the FRG’s Russia policy linked to the norms, driving Berlin’s foreign policy? 2. How is the ‘Europeanization’ of Germany’s Russia policy linked to ambitions to ‘take more responsibility in Europe’? 3. What is the potential of the FRG regarding ‘coalition building’ in terms of elaboration of common EU stances on Russia policy? The review of these topics enables to understand the transformations within the framework of Germany’s Russia policy. The assessment is done basing on the methodology of foreign policy analysis reflecting the ‘national roles’ and ‘operational codes’. Among other things, poliheuristic approach will be used to trace the narratives regarding the role of the EU in elaboration and implementation of the FRG’s policy toward Russia. Empirically, the speeches of key foreign policy decision-makers and Germany’s stances in the European Council will be analyzed. On the results of this review, it will be determined to what extent Germany is ready to co-ordinate its foreign policy toward Russia on the EU level.
Iwona Lasek-Surowiec dr

Prawne aspekty wprowadzenia cyfrowej waluty w Unii Europejskiej a bezpieczeństwo obrotu
Intensive discussion on the introduction of the digital euro has been going on in EU bodies for several years. The introduction of the digital currency in the EU in the euro area countries is justified, among others, by the need to guarantee free access to a simple, commonly accepted, safe and reliable means of payment. This justification has gained significant importance in the era of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic. The right to issue the digital currency would be assigned to the European Central Bank and the national central banks of the euro area. The digital euro would not replace cash, but an additional form of money, increase the choice of payment methods and facilitate their payment, improving the availability of payment services. The above-mentioned project, however, is related to large-scale legal changes and obliges us to take parallel actions in the field of trade security and payment systems in the event of various cyber threats..
Marzena Hajduk-Stelmachowicz

Pandemia COVID-19 jako wyzwanie systemowe w kontekście zarządzania bezpieczeństwem w lotnictwie
Analysis of necessary changes in connection with the Covid 19 pandemic in order to increase aviation safety. Presentation of innovative solutions aimed at improving safety. Pandemic risk management.
Witold Graca

Rola służb specjalnych w ochronie cyberprzestrzeni na przykładzie Polski i Republiki Czeskiej- uwarunkowania prawne i polityczne.
The aim of the research presented in my speech is to compare the political and political situation of cybersecurity protection in the political systems of Poland and the Czech Republic in the context of the role of secret services, relations between entities performing tasks in this area and the executive and legislative authorities, and the protection of civil rights and freedoms. The comparative method was used to carry out the analysis.
Paulina Bełch

Transport drogowy jako element infrastruktury krytycznej w dobie pandemii COVID-19
I will discuss why road transport is critical and I will present the impact of the pandemic on road transport in Poland and in Europe.
Dr inż. Sławomir Gromadzki

Nord Stream 2, Kolejne etapy rozwoju projektu – wymiar prawny
W pracy zaprezentowano część wyników badań zawartych w rozprawie doktorskiej. Głównym celem wystąpienia jest przedstawienie projekcji dalszego rozwoju projektu Nord Stream 2 w wymiarze prawnym dla bezpieczeństwa energetycznego UE i Polski. Dokonano weryfikacji założeń hipotezy zakładającej, że Nord Stream 2 to zaledwie kolejny etap dużego projektu zdefiniowanego jako „Europejski Region Gazowy” z lokalizacją na Morzu Barentsa i planowanego połączenia tego obszaru z Nord Stream 2 za pomocą Eastern Arctic Pipeline. Zakłada się, że realizacja tegoż projektu wywoła poważne implikacje prawne dla bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Unii Europejskiej.
Julia Bojko

Prawne aspekty nauczania języka polskiego w Ukrainie na przykładzie organizacji polonijnych
Changes in the Ukrainian legislation on teaching the Polish language, especially the treatment of schools with the Polish language of instruction, influences the creation of mutual international relations and resumes the discussion on the role of national minorities in the former CIS states. Is the Polish minority a threat to the sovereignty of Ukraine or Belarus? The questions posed in this way create a new platform for debate on the role of national minorities and their influence on creation
Adam Kuź

Threats to the security policy of Central and Eastern Europe in the 21st century, with particular emphasis on the withdrawal of the USA from the hegemonic position in Europe.
The main purpose of the speech is to answer the question of what effects the withdrawal of the US from the hegemonic position in Europe will have and how it will affect the security environment in Central and Eastern Europe.
dr hab. Mykola Buchyn

Основні політичні та безпекові загрози в сучасній Україні
The article highlights the features of the current political and security situation in Ukraine. The main existing threats in the political and security spheres are revealed, connected, in particular, with the Russian aggression in the east of Ukraine, the spread of the coronavirus pandemic, the monopolization of power, etc..
Dr Małgorzata Chackiewicz

Przestępczość transgraniczna celna jako zagrożenie dla współczesnego świata
The management of control activities performed by customs authorities undoubtedly has a huge impact on international trade in goods. The undertaken actions must ensure maximum safety against threats to state security, citizens’ life and health, the natural environment and cultural heritage. The phenomenon of cross-border customs crime is nothing else than linking international trade in goods with the threat of smuggling, among others alcohol, cigarettes, fuels, weapons, ammunition, drugs, antiques, waste, counterfeit goods, endangered species of plants and animals. At the same time, the process of increasing the effectiveness of controls is to be carried out while ensuring facilitations and simplifications for the international movement of goods.
Dariusz Rałowski

Udział podmiotów ochrony przeciwpożarowej z zwalczaniu zagrożeń cywilizacyjnych
The security environment is characterized by a wide spectrum of civilization, social and cultural threats. One of the most important areas of ensuring public order is the organization and efficient operation of rescue services ensuring an appropriate level of local safety. In the Polish legal system, fire protection entities are assigned competences related not only to fighting fires, but also the scope of technical, chemical, ecological and medical rescue and cooperation with other services in the field of combating terrorism and hybrid threats. In addition, the threats related to the Covid-19 virus forced ad hoc measures to counteract the development of the pandemic. In addition to rescue operations, which are the main field of operation of fire brigades in Poland, the State Fire Service entities have obligations related to the identification and monitoring of threats at the country level and active participation in the EU Civil Protection Mechanism. The presentation will present the conditions for the functioning of the internal security subsystem in Poland, which are fire protection entities.
Anna Szachoń-Pszenny dr

Wpływ covid-19 na przekraczanie granic – wybrane problemy prawne i praktyczne
The paper covers the analysis of selected legal and practical problems in crossing the EU borders caused by the covid-19 pandemic. They will be considered in terms of the instruments used at the internal and external borders of the European Union and the Schengen area.
Prof. Markus Bresinsky

Hybrid threat as dilemma for networked security.(Zagrożenie hybrydowe jako dylemat bezpieczeństwa sieciowego).
Hybrid threats describe a means by which a foreign adversary combines various aggressive measures in such a way that they purposefully influence the political will of a target country. The spectrum of involved measures ranges from traditional conventional means and methods to destabilising and subversive techniques. In the last years, the Western countries has increasingly been confronted with such hybrid threats.The underlying assumption in this article is that Western countries are vulnerable to these hybrid threats because they adopted a so-called ‘networked approach’ to security. Networked security joins different actors as well as different structures and processes, for which it is also known as ‘comprehensive approach’ elsewhere. It is aimed at removing the barriers – including different organisational cultures, the lack of a shared understanding of common security and interoperability problems – which would otherwise make it difficult for actors to effectively cooperate at the national level and within international alliances simultaneously. Through this, the networked approach is designed to complement conventional defence capabilities in order to target novel security challenges. At the same time, however, the networked approach also creates new critical interdependencies between exactly these actors and organisations which are responsible for countering hybrid threats. Thus, a dilemma arises: a more networked approach to security, intended to counter hybrid threats, simultaneously increases vulnerability. The lack of a systemic understanding of one’s own networked security approach therefore enables an adversary using hybrid techniques to identify and exploit these gaps through adaptive steps. A better analysis of one’s own interdependencies can therefore be a first step towards better recognising hybrid threats.
Prof. dr hab. Piotr Mickiewicz

Odwrót od dominacji koncepcji działań hybrydowych Niedostrzegana zmiana paradygmatu polityki bezpieczeństwa Rosji
The conceptual dimension of the transformations of the Russian military doctrine undertaken after 2015 focuses on the hybrid nature of the activities carried out and the construction of military potential allowing for the projection of the strength and anti-access potential of A2 / AD (Anti-Access / Area Denial). The purpose of the speech is to identify the determinants that underpin the transformation of the Russian concept of military operations and their use to ensure the security of the Russian Federation. Two research questions were left: what factors determined the transformations of the Russian concept of military operations and what means of political and military influence are currently and will be used in the near future to ensure the security of the Russian Federation. In the course of the analyzes, it was indicated which areas of the Russian vision of conducting military operations were modified after 2015 and the role of individual measures of political and military influence (conventional and special military measures, non-military instruments and new technologies) in this topic was determined. Based on these analyzes, the scope of changes in the formula of military operations was determined, pointing to the vision of the so-called defensive offensive operation and the wedge theory as the leading concept of offensive operations. Due to time constraints, these concepts were not linked to the plan to modernize the Russian Army Forces, which would additionally justify the presented conclusions
Dr hab. Piotr Dela

Wojna w cyberprzestrzeni. Fakty i mity
The paper presents selected elements of the conflict in cyberspace (with the use of cyberspace). The environmental conditions of cyberspace were presented, paying attention to its informational character. The differences between combat and war were determined with reference to the factors determining victory. The goals pursued in the conflict with the use of cyberspace as well as the methods and forms of interaction were identified. The most characteristic examples of impact are also presented, taking into account the scale and scope of these threats
Prof. dr hab. Andrzej Zapałowski

Zagrożenia destabilizacji sytuacji na Ukrainie poprzez operacje pośrednie
In recent months, threats related to the possibility of its multi-dimensional destabilization have accumulated around Ukraine. Catastrophically low coal reserves in power plants and combined heat and power plants, the possibility of closing gas transmission through the territory of Ukraine, and thus disconnecting this country from gas resources, as well as deepening economic recession, migration pressure from Belarus and Russia destabilizing the functioning of the army and services are just some of the threats to this country. Basically, most of the emerging threats will be non-military in the initial period, but spatial, i.e. carried out in remote places in Ukraine, in order to stretch and hinder the activities of the services and the army. An important element of the psychological impact will be energy problems and creating in society attitudes of social rebellion against the state authorities.
Prof. dr hab. Jarosław Gryz

Geopolityka państwa polskiego jako element polityki bezpieczeństwa w XXI w.
Global, pan regional, regional geopolitical changes in the 1920s. In the 21st century, they redefine Poland’s security. Keeping its sovereignty, territorial whole, development projection represent leading challenges determining the state’s policy and strategy. Poland’s membership of the North Atlantic Alliance and the European Union is an imperative of its raison d’état. Along with the alliance with the United States of America, it is currently being redefined. Is it as a result of changes in the forms of political and economic activity, social, cultural, and the above-mentioned entities. Poland takes part and is obliged to make strategic choices that they will define the sense and the concept of security for this and the future generations of Polish women and Poles.
Dr Waldemar Krztoń

Ocena zjawiska wojny. Płaszczyzna teoretyczna.
The assessment of the phenomenon of war is complex. It consists of many layers. It takes into account the various aspects of this phenomenon and the participation of people in it. It is not limited to warfare itself as a fact of human participation that takes place at a specific time and place. This assessment also applies to the less visible elements of the war phenomenon, including the motivations for taking up war, participating in it, and the various consequences of warfare. It also covers politics, as well as the actions of certain forces exerting a direct influence on politics, and thus on the outbreak of war. The assessment of war also includes the consequences of war, both in the sphere of the individual (man) and in the sphere of various social values. They include most often, next to human life, happiness, dignity and freedom, as well as prosperity, social harmony, social development, cultural and material goods.
Dr Krzysztof Michalski

Długotrwałe, wielkoobszarowe awarie elektroenergetyczne (blackout) jako wyzwanie dla zarządzania kryzysowego.
The current energy transformations, combined with the rapid increase in the structural complexity of cyber-physical systems (CPS) supplying society with electricity, the increased vulnerability of these systems to cyber attacks and the growing demand for electricity, increase the risk of collapse of systems that are already operating on the edge of efficiency in the future. The result of sudden, long-lasting, large-scale power failures may be cascading, cumulative crisis situations that cannot be dealt with by the internal security systems of any country. Despite the fact that blackout is currently becoming one of the most serious non-military threats of the modern world, the Polish crisis management system – like the systems of most EU countries – is not properly prepared for catastrophic scenarios of the consequences of long-term, large-scale power failures. In order to deepen the awareness of the seriousness of the threat and the necessary security measures that should be taken at the level of the state, municipal administration, enterprises and households in order to build preparedness for such total crisis situations, the paper will review the existing risk assessments (I) and outline possible scenarios the effects of a blackout (II), as well as a panorama of the problems (III) that will be faced by crisis management services at the local level if such failures occur. The conclusions will formulate recommendations for crisis management and civil protection services, as well as for citizens themselves, to properly prepare for long-term power shortages (IV).
Dr hab. Izabela Oleksiewicz

Strategy of EU cybersecurity protection in 20. century.
The presentation will attempt to demonstrate that the effectiveness of actions taken by European Union authorities in the field of cyberterrorism depends on the type of instruments at the disposal of the EU and the Member States and the legal basis of the relevant regulations. The problem remains the legal inaccuracies and interpretation discrepancies in the provisions of legal regulations at the EU level regarding the division of competences regarding the protection of cyberspace, which in fact lead to a delay in the establishment of mutual cooperation between the EU and the Member States.
Dirk Pinnow

Safety and security through Emergency Response Planning – the paranoid survival formula of mankind.
In times when existential threats in everyday life are often suppressed, a positivistic, yet ignorant attitude prevails, which is very aptly described by the so-called Rhenish Basic Law, Article 3: _”It has always gone well so far.”_ However, _”tempora mutantur, nos et mutamur in illis” _(Latin for _”times change, and we change in them”_). Those who are lucky enough might enjoy a high degree of security and safety for decades. But at a particular time, the smallest, then often ignored disturbances and errors are effectual to create a crisis – i.e. a time-critical decision-making is necessary to re-adjust the situation back to „normal”. If this crisis is then not recognised as such due to the inertia of perception, disaster looms! Whilst in engineering, e.g. aerospace, for good reason the so called Murphy’s Law -_ „Anything that can go wrong will go wrong.”_ – finds its way into emergency and recovery planning, business economists and politicians in particular find it difficult to rationally prepare for crises and disasters. This lecture takes a short time travel through human history, derives recommendations for the decision making level and pleads: „_Be prepared for the worst and yet hope for the best!
Dr inż. Wiesław Lewicki

Szkolenie wojskowe studentów jako element systemu obronnego państwa na przykładzie programu Legii Akademickiej.
The government of each country is aware of the fact that the military needs people with special skills. Numerous investments in military equipment and the increasing role of cyberspace mean that, in addition to maintaining permanent resources of specialists, it becomes necessary to have sufficiently large and qualitatively good reserves. Since the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland in 2010 resigned from the maintenance and training of soldiers in the basic service, the level of personnel reserves has become significantly pauperized. The progressive „aging” process of reservists and the lack of efficient sources of their acquisition resulted in an urgent need to change this state. Among the numerous programs announced by the Ministry of National Defense, and aimed at acquiring qualified reservists, there is the program of the Academic Legion aimed at academic youth as an extremely valuable resource for future reservists. The speech will present selected aspects of the process of military training of students from the historical background to the present state, as the combat readiness of amiya, its potential and the capabilities of each country also largely depend on the state and amount of personnel reserves that a given country has.
Dr hab. Marta Pomykała

Ochrona zdrowia publicznego w działaniach administracji publicznej.
Since the Covid-19 pandemic began, Polish society has been paying much more attention to the problem of protecting public health. Public health affects the implementation of politics and the administration and management of public affairs, while the protection of public health affects the undertaking of economic activity, the performance of tasks in education, as well as the presentation of culture. It generates social activity in every area of ​​social life. This article aims to present the role of public administration in the field of public health protection, and in particular to indicate its competences, functions and tasks in this area. The subject of the considerations will be the activities of entities operating at the national, regional and local level. Changes in the system of public administration activities that took place during the Covid-19 pandemic will be presented. An attempt will be made to define the key tasks in terms of ensuring health security. The analysis will be carried out on the basis of the currently applicable legal regulations: the Public Health Act, the Act on Public Administration Departments, the Act on the Voivode and government administration in the voivodeship and local government acts.
Dr Andrzej Kiełtyka

Organizacja i funkcjonowanie prokuratury w aspekcie bezpieczeństwa państwa.
A public prosecutor is a public institution which, on behalf of the society and in the public interest, ensures the application of the law in cases where the violation of the law entails criminal sanctions, taking into account both the rights of the individual and the necessary effectiveness of the criminal justice system. The lack of detailed constitutional regulations concerning the prosecution service made it possible to freely define the position of the prosecutor’s office and shape its tasks in subsequent acts, depending on the ideas of the changing leadership teams. There has been a peculiar struggle in extremes, between an independent and independent prosecutor’s office, completely subordinated to the government and tactical political goals. When enacting the new Law on the Public Prosecutor’s Office of 2016, it was assumed that the government’s control and influence (through the Minister of Justice) over the prosecutor’s office would be maintained. It was argued that, in accordance with the Constitution, the Council of Ministers was to ensure internal security and public order in the State (Article 146 (4) (7) of the Constitution). Therefore, it must have a real impact on the activities of the prosecutor’s office. This argument was considered to be ineffective. The public prosecutor’s office was not considered to be a body that fulfills the tasks of the state in the field of internal security and public order. The doctrine indicated that the implementation of tasks in the field of ensuring the external and internal security of the state is undertaken by the ministers of: foreign affairs, national defense, and internal affairs and administration, who act in accordance with the guidelines provided by the Council of Ministers. No legal provision stipulates that the tasks of the prosecutor’s office include matters of „security and public order”
Dr hab. Marcin Jurgilewicz

Mediacja w sprawach karnych a praktyka policyjna.
Mediation is one of the alternative forms of resolving legal disputes. This institution is embedded in the most important areas of law – civil law, administrative law and criminal law. The criminal procedure determines the normative conditions for the use of mediation in practice. Criminal cases conducted by Police officers are of a different nature, although in some cases the institution of mediation may be used. It is justified for many reasons, the most important of which seems to be the possibility of settling the dispute between the aggrieved party and the perpetrator of the prohibited act with its formal settlement. The essence of mediation is to find the source of the conflict. And although in criminal cases this institution is not so popular and applied in practice, it nevertheless brings many benefits to the parties.
Dr Bogusław Olewiński

Zadania organów ścigania w zwalczaniu przestępstw przeciwko bezpieczeństwu publicznemu.
The study concerns the general tasks of law enforcement agencies in combating crimes that may harm public security. At the beginning, he will explain the concept and scope of public safety and its possible threats. Then the organizational structure and tasks of law enforcement agencies dealing with combating this category of crimes, namely: the Public Prosecutor’s Office (common organizational units of the prosecutor’s office), the Police and the Internal Security Agency. The next fragment of the presentation is devoted to the indication of the general features (features) of crimes against public safety specified in the Penal Code (according to the code systematics). At the end, the specific tasks and powers of the Police, the Internal Security Agency and the Public Prosecutor’s Office in combating terrorist crimes against public security will be presented.
Dr Dagmara Florek-Klęsk

Prawno-instytucjonalne aspekty bezpieczeństwa pracy zdalnej.
The outbreak of the coronavirus epidemic made it necessary for the state to take solutions aimed at counteracting the pandemic, including solutions allowing employers to maintain work continuity. The solutions introduced by the Crisis Shield resulted in the spread of remote work, which until now was practically unknown in Poland. Despite the passage of time, the pandemic still persists and all signs indicate that remote work will stay with us for a longer time. In order to meet the expectations of employers, the Polish government has decided to start work aimed at regulating the rules of remote work in a more comprehensive manner. And so, on July 23, 2021, the second version of the draft amendment to the Labor Code, introducing remote work, was published. This paper aims to discuss the current legal regulations regarding remote work, as well as the proposed changes in this area.
Dr hab. Jarosław Solarz

Miejsce, rola i charakter zagrożeń CBRN we współczesnym środowisku bezpieczeństwa.
The National Security Strategy of the Republic of Poland of 2020 defines in detail the contemporary security environment of Poland, pointing to the growing number of various challenges and threats. One of them are CBRN threats which, due to their specificity and diversity, are not easy to be clearly perceived and interpreted. The aim of the article is to identify and specify CBRN threats, especially their sources, nature and role that they can play in the area of ​​national security of the Republic of Poland. When looking for specific examples of CBRN threats, the starting point was the provisions of the „Strategy …”, namely the sentence stating that the modern security environment is characterized by uncertainty and unpredictability, which results from failure to respect international law and failure to meet international obligations. Such a situation generates a number of problems and conflicts that materialize in the form of specific threats to security, both locally, nationally and internationally. Among them, CBRN threats play a role, although not all in the same way or to a similar extent. The number and variety of these threats encouraged the author to make an attempt to determine the scale and nature of CBRN threats, which, in collision with the provisions of the National Security Strategy, may have a significant impact on the form of the contemporary security environment.
Dr Piotr Wilczyński

Rekolonizacja Afryki w białych rękawiczkach.
In the introduction, I will present the state of the debate in the pages of international journals on neocolonialism and neo-imperialism today. I will also take into account China’s growing influence in Africa. I will present the voices concerned about this process and explain why they refer to this growing Chinese capital in this way. In the second part, I will present the most important investments in mining and exploitation of natural resources in individual African countries. It was checked whether the reports of China’s domination in this sector were real. In the next section, I will analyze the dependence of African countries on arms supplies. I will prove that the situation is much more complicated than the publicists describe it.
Dr Bolesław Kurzępa

Reglamentacja obrotu bronią, amunicją i materiałami wybuchowymi jako element bezpieczeństwa.
The paper presents issues related to the controls performed by various inspection bodies in relation to the transport of dangerous goods by entities operating in road, rail and inland shipping. The text of the speech was based primarily on the regulations contained in the Act of August 19, 2011. on the transport of dangerous goods, but in close connection with international agreements ADR, RID and ADN. The literature on this issue is extremely modest, as it is contained mainly in hard-to-reach industry periodicals and focuses mainly on the technical aspects of the transport of dangerous goods. In order, the following issues were discussed in the paper: control of entities conducting training in the transport of dangerous goods, control of compliance with the requirements by transportable pressure equipment, control of the transport of dangerous goods. The conclusion will be the conclusions drawn from the entire material presented.